The Franciscans in the Philippines, 1578-1898
The Ordo Fratrum Minorum (Order of Friars Minor, OFM) is a mendicant religous order founded by St. Francis of Assisi.
Upon their arrival, they were temporarily housed in the Augustinian convent in Intramuros. On August 2, after moving into their own place the previous day, they blessed their first church dedicated to the Nuestra Señora de los Angeles (Our Lady of the Angels).
This church (top photo), initially made from bamboo, nipa and wood was eventually made into a stone edifice in 1739. Considered one of the impressive churches in the walled city, with the chapel of the Venerable Orden Tercera (VOT) perpendicular to it, it was destroyed in 1945 during World War II. The present location is currently occupied by the Mapua Institute of Technology.
In many Franciscan churches built during the Spanish colonial era around the country, the order’s emblem can often be found inscribed on the façade of the churches, in many bas reliefs in the interior as well as inscribed on the bells. In Guiuan’s belfry (second photo from top), it is found inscribed at the second level. The emblem consists of the crossed arms of Christ and St. Francis with the image of the cross behind it.
The Franciscans evangelized a big part of Luzon and the Visayas. In Manila, they had their main church in Intramuros (Our Lady of the Angels), and Sta. Ana, an old settlement even before the Spaniards came.
They took charge of the the southern towns of Bulacan like Obando, Sta. Maria, and Marilao, to cite a few, near Manila (the northern part were taken by the Augustinians). It is in the present provinces of Rizal, most part of Laguna, Quezon and the entire Bicol region that they founded and established many towns and cities as well as built impressive stone churches that still stand today.
The beautiful churches of Lucban and Tayabas in Quezon, the ornate ones in Pakil and Paete, all in Laguna, as well as the massive Naga City Cathedral, San Jose, Sagnay, and the quaint Lagonoy churches in Camarines Sur are just a few of these still extant edifices that they built. There are also ruins, especially in Bicol, and a few watchtowers like in Gumaca, Quezon, testament to the devastating muslim slave raids.
During the middle of the 19th century, they took over the spiritual administration of Samar and Leyte. These two provinces were first administered by the Jesuits but after their expulsion in 1768, the Augustinians took charge.
Other than churches, the Franciscans also pioneered charitable works and the caring of the sick. They have founded several hospitals as early as 1580 like the San Juan de Dios Hospital and San Lazaro Leprosarium, even predating the English colonies in the Americas (Pennsylvania Hospital, 1751). Two others are Naga Hospital of San Diego (1586) and Hospital of the Holy Waters in Los Baños (1592).
In literature, Fray Pedro de San Buenaventura wrote the Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, a Spanish – Tagalog dictionary published in Pila, Laguna in 1613. A Bicolano-Spanish dictionary was also published in1745.
Authorship of the country’s first book, the Doctrina Christiana, published by the Dominicans in 1593 is attributed to Fray Juan de Plasencia. There are still other literary works that the Franciscans have done.
The order also built many schools, dams and roads. However, one controversial issue that marked them was the two novels of Jose Rizal, the Noli me tangere and El filibusterismo which negatively portrayed the Franciscans in the country during the Spanish colonial period.